# Standards

Note: These standards are by no means set in stone, and as a community, we always want to be iterating and improving Mojaloop. If you want to propose a change to these standards, or suggest further improvements, please reach out to the Design Authority Channel on the Mojaloop Slack (#design-authority)

# Runtime Environment

The following runtime standards are utilizes for Mojaloop.

# Micro-services & Libraries

  1. Javascript

    NodeJS is the standard Runtime for all Mojaloop services and components for the execution of Javascript source-code files.

    Our goal is to ensure that all NodeJS based services run against the latest Active LTS (Long Time Support) version of NodeJS following the official NodeJS Release Cycle (opens new window).

  2. Container (Docker) Operating System (OS)

    Mojaloop's Micro-services are built on top of the node:<NODE_ACTIVE_LTS_VERSION>-alpine base image, where NODE_ACTIVE_LTS_VERSION is the current NodeJS LTS following the official NodeJS Release Cycle (opens new window). Refer to DockerHub (opens new window) for a full list of official NodeJS Alpine Docker images.

    NOTE: When specifying the NODE_ACTIVE_LTS_VERSION, use the full semantic version such as <MAJOR>-<MINOR>-<PATCH>.

    node:16.15.0-alpine <-- This is OK

    lts-alpine3.16 <-- This is NOT OK

    1. Standard Javascript Dockerfile example:

      FROM node:<NODE_ACTIVE_LTS_VERSION>-alpine as builder
      WORKDIR /opt/app
      
      RUN apk --no-cache add git
      RUN apk add --no-cache -t build-dependencies make gcc g++ python3 libtool libressl-dev openssl-dev autoconf automake \
          && cd $(npm root -g)/npm \
          && npm config set unsafe-perm true \
          && npm install -g node-gyp
      
      COPY package*.json /opt/app/
      
      RUN npm ci --production
      
      FROM node:<NODE_ACTIVE_LTS_VERSION>-alpine
      WORKDIR /opt/app
      
      # Create empty log file & link stdout to the application log file
      RUN mkdir ./logs && touch ./logs/combined.log
      RUN ln -sf /dev/stdout ./logs/combined.log
      
      # Create a non-root user: ml-user
      RUN adduser -D ml-user 
      USER ml-user
      
      # Copy builder artefact
      COPY --chown=ml-user --from=builder /opt/app .
      
      # Copy source files
      COPY src /opt/app/src
      
      # Copy default config
      COPY config /opt/app/config
      
      EXPOSE <PORT>
      CMD ["npm", "run", "start"]
      
    2. Standard Typescript Dockerfile example:

      FROM node:<NODE_ACTIVE_LTS_VERSION>-alpine as builder
      USER root
      WORKDIR /opt/app
      
      RUN apk update \
          && apk add --no-cache -t build-dependencies git make gcc g++ python3 libtool autoconf automake openssh \
          && cd $(npm root -g)/npm \
          && npm config set unsafe-perm true \
          && npm install -g node-gyp
      
      COPY package.json package-lock.json* ./
      
      RUN npm ci
      
      FROM node:<NODE_ACTIVE_LTS_VERSION>-alpine
      WORKDIR /opt/app
      
      # Create empty log file & link stdout to the application log file
      RUN mkdir ./logs && touch ./logs/combined.log
      RUN ln -sf /dev/stdout ./logs/combined.log
      
      # Create a non-root user: ml-user
      RUN adduser -D ml-user
      USER ml-user
      
      # Copy builder artefact
      COPY --chown=ml-user --from=builder /opt/app ./
      
      COPY src /opt/app/src
      COPY config /opt/app/config
      
      # NPM script to build source (./src) to destination (./dist)
      RUN npm run build
      
      # Prune devDependencies
      RUN npm prune --production
      
      # Prune source files
      RUN rm -rf src
      
      EXPOSE <PORT>
      CMD ["npm", "run", "start"]
      

# CI (Continuos Integration) Pipelines

Mojaloop's CI Jobs are executed against the current Ubuntu LTS version following the official Ubuntu Release Cycle (opens new window).

# Kubernetes

Mojaloop's Helm Charts (mojaloop/helm (opens new window) mojaloop/charts (opens new window)) are deployed and verified against the current Kubernetes LTS version following the official Kubernetes Release Cycle (opens new window).

# Style Guide

The Mojaloop Community provides a set of guidelines for the style of code we write. These standards help ensure that the Mojaloop codebase remains high quality, maintainable and consistent.

These style guides are chosen because they can be easily enforced and checked using popular tools with minimal customization. While we recognise that developers will have personal preferences that may conflict with these guidelines we favour consistency over bike-shedding (opens new window) these rules.

The goal of these guides is to ensure an easy developer workflow and reduce code commits that contain changes for the sake of style over content. By reducing the noise in diffs we make the job of reviewers easier.

# Code Style

# Naming Conventions

To avoid confusion and guarantee cross-language interpolation, follow these rules regarding naming conventions:

  • Do not use abbreviations or contractions as parts of identifier names. For example, use SettlementWindow instead of SetWin.
  • Do not use acronyms that are not generally accepted in the computing field.
  • Where appropriate, use well-known acronyms to replace lengthy phrase names. For example, use UI for User Interface.
  • Use Pascal case or camel case for names more than two characters long depending on context (e.g. class names vs variable names). For example, use SettlementWindow (Class) or settlementWindow (Variable).
  • You should capitalize abbreviations that consist of only two characters, such as ID instead of Id when isolated. For example, use /transfer/ instead of /transfer/ when representing ID as a URI parameter.
  • Avoid abbreviations in identifiers or parameter names. If you must use abbreviations, use camel case for abbreviations that consist of more than two characters, even if this contradicts the standard abbreviation of the word.
  • Use screaming (capitalized) Snack case for Enumerations. For example, use RECORD_FUNDS_OUT_PREPARE_RESERVE.

Ref: Microsoft - Design Guidelines for Class Library Developers (opens new window)

# Javascript

Mojaloop uses the Javascript code style dictated by StandardJS (opens new window). For a full set of rules, refer to the Standard Rules (opens new window), but as a brief set of highlights:

  • Use 2 spaces for indentation
function helloWorld (name) {
  console.log('hi', name)
}
  • Use single quotes for strings except to avoid escaping.
console.log('hello there')    // ✓ ok
console.log("hello there")    // ✗ avoid
console.log(`hello there`)    // ✗ avoid
  • No semicolons. (see: 1, 2, 3)
window.alert('hi')   // ✓ ok
window.alert('hi');  // ✗ avoid

# Typescript

Note: Standard and Typescript

As we start to introduce more Typescript into the codebase, Standard becomes less useful, and can even be detrimental to our development workflow if we try to run standard across the Javascript compiled from Typescript. We need to evaluate other options for Standard in Typescript, such as a combination of Prettier + ESLint.

Refer to the template-typescript-public (opens new window) for the standard typescript configuration.

# YAML

While YAML deserializers can vary from one to another, we follow the following rules when writing YAML:

Credit: these examples were taken from the flathub style guide (opens new window)

  • 2 space indents
  • Always indent child elements
# GOOD:
modules:
  - name: foo
    sources:
      - type: bar

# BAD:
modules:
- name: foo
  sources:
  - type: bar
  • Do not align values
# BAD:
id:           org.example.Foo   
modules:
  - name:     foo
    sources:
      - type: git

# sh + bash

  • The Shebang should respect the user's local environment:
#!/usr/bin/env bash

This ensures that the script will match the bash that is defined in the user's environment, instead of hardcoding to a specific bash at /usr/bin/bash.

  • When referring to other files, don't use relative paths:

This is because your script will likely break if somebody runs it from a different directory from where the script is located

# BAD:
cat ../Dockerfile | wc -l

# GOOD:
DIR="$( cd "$( dirname "${BASH_SOURCE[0]}" )" && pwd )"
cat ${DIR}/../Dockerfile | wc -l 

For other recommended bash conventions, refer to this blog post: Best Practices for Writing Shell Scripts (opens new window)

# Documentation

  • Documentation should be written in Markdown format.
  • Hand drawn diagrams should use an editable SVG format (example - architecture / component / block / state transition diagrams) exported from diagrams.net (opens new window)

    NOTE: Please ensure that you have imbedded the editable diagram when exporting the SVG from diagrams.net (opens new window)!

  • Sequence diagrams should use PlantUML
  • All discussion documents should be placed in /community/archive/discussion-docs.
  • The use of Google Docs and other private tools is not advised for community wide collaboration

# Directory Structure

Along with guidelines for coding styles, the Mojaloop Community recommends the following directory structure. This ensures that developers can easily switch from one project to another, and also ensures that our tools and configs (such as .circleci/config.yml and Dockerfiles) can be ported easily from one project to another with minor changes.

The directory structure guide requires:

├── README.md          # README containing general information about components such as pre-requisites, testing, etc.
├── LICENSE.md         # Standard Mojaloop License descriptor.
├── package.json       # Project package descriptor.
├── package-lock.json  # Project package descriptor describing an exact dependency tree in time.
├── nvmrc.json         # NVMRC containing NodeJS runtime. This should preferably reflect the current NodeJS Active LTS version.
├── .ncurc.yaml        # Ignore file for dep:check script (npm-check-updates).
├── Dockerfile         # Optional - Dockerfile descriptor.
├── docker-compose.yml # Optional - Docker Compose descriptor, inc containing backend dependencies.
├── .npmignore         # Optional - NPM ignore file for publishing libraries.
├── .gitignore         # Github ignore file.
├── src                # Directory containing project source files.
│   ├── index.<js/ts>    # Main entry point for component.
│   ├── <filename>.<js/ts> # Source file format.
│   └── ...            # Other source files and sub-directories
├── dist               # Directory containing compiled javascript files (see tsconfig below).
├── test               # Directory for tests, containing at least:
│   ├── unit           # Unit tests, matching the directory structure in `./src`.
│   │   ├── <filename>.test.<js/ts> # Tests file format.
│   │   └── ...        # Other test files and sub-directories
│   ├── integration    # Integration tests, matching the directory structure in `./src`.
│   ├── functional     # Functional tests, matching the directory structure in `./src`.
│   └── util           # Generic testing scripts and NodeJS helpers.
└── config 
    └── default.json   # Default config file.

# Config Files

The following Config files help to enforce the code styles outlined above:

# EditorConfig

EditorConfig is supported out of the box in many IDEs and Text editors. For more information, refer to the EditorConfig guide (opens new window).

.editorconfig

root = true

[*]
end_of_line = lf
insert_final_newline = true
trim_trailing_whitespace = true
charset = utf-8

[{*.js,*.ts,package.json,*.yml,*.cjson}]
indent_style = space
indent_size = 2

[*.md]
trim_trailing_whitespace = false

# NYC (code coverage tool)

.nycrc.yml

temp-directory: "./.nyc_output"
check-coverage: true
per-file: true
lines: 90
statements: 90
functions: 90
branches: 90
all: true
include: [
  "src/**/*.js"
]
reporter: [
  "lcov",
  "text-summary"
]
exclude: [
  "**/node_modules/**",
  '**/migrations/**'
]

# Typescript

.tsconfig.json

{
  "include": [
    "src"
  ],
  "exclude": [
    "node_modules",
    "**/*.spec.ts",
    "test",
    "lib",
    "coverage"
  ],
  "compilerOptions": {
    "target": "es2018",
    "module": "commonjs",
    "lib": [
      "esnext"
    ],
    "importHelpers": true,
    "declaration": true,
    "sourceMap": true,
    "rootDir": "./src",
    "outDir": "./dist",
    "strict": true,
    "noImplicitAny": true,
    "strictNullChecks": true,
    "strictFunctionTypes": true,
    "strictPropertyInitialization": true,
    "noImplicitThis": true,
    "alwaysStrict": true,
    "noUnusedLocals": true,
    "noUnusedParameters": true,
    "noImplicitReturns": true,
    "noFallthroughCasesInSwitch": true,
    "moduleResolution": "node",
    "baseUrl": "./",
    "paths": {
      "*": [
        "src/*",
        "node_modules/*"
      ]
    },
    "esModuleInterop": true
  }
}

.eslintrc.js

module.exports = {
  parser: '@typescript-eslint/parser',  // Specifies the ESLint parser
  extends: [
    'plugin:@typescript-eslint/recommended',  // Uses the recommended rules from the @typescript-eslint/eslint-plugin
    'prettier/@typescript-eslint', // Uses eslint-config-prettier to disable ESLint rules from @typescript-eslint/eslint-plugin that would conflict with prettier
    'plugin:prettier/recommended', // Enables eslint-plugin-prettier and displays prettier errors as ESLint errors. Make sure this is always the last configuration in the extends array.
    // Enforces ES6+ import/export syntax
    'plugin:import/errors',
    'plugin:import/warnings',
    'plugin:import/typescript',
  ],
  parserOptions: {
    ecmaVersion: 2018,  // Allows for the parsing of modern ECMAScript features
    sourceType: 'module',  // Allows for the use of imports
  },
  rules: {
    '@typescript-eslint/no-explicit-any': 'off',
    '@typescript-eslint/no-var-requires': 'off'
  },
  overrides: [
    {
      // Disable some rules that we abuse in unit tests.
      files: ['test/**/*.ts'],
      rules: {
        '@typescript-eslint/explicit-function-return-type': 'off',
      },
    },
  ],
};

For a more detailed list of the recommended typescript configuration, including package.json, jest.config.js and more, refer to the Typescript Template Project (opens new window).

# Dependency Management

# Dependency Upgrades

It is important to ensure that the latest Dependencies are used to mitigate security issues.

# NodeJS

NodeJS projects should install npm-check-updates (opens new window) using the following command:

npm install -D npm-check-updates

And add the following scripts to package.json:

"scripts": {
    "dep:check": "npx ncu -e 2",
    "dep:update": "npx ncu -u"
}

Run the following script to check for any dependencies that need upgrading:

npm run dep:check

If required, one can execute the following command to install the latest dependencies:

npm run dep:update && npm i

If a dependency cannot be upgraded for a valid reason, then .ncurc.yaml file should added to the project root with said dependency added to the reject list with an appropriate comment as follows:

## Add a TODO comment indicating the reason for each rejected dependency upgrade added to this list, and what should be done to resolve it (i.e. handle it through a story, etc).
reject: [
  # TODO: <Insert detailed information as to why this dependency should be ignored.>
  "<DEPENDENCY_TO_IGNORE>",
]

The following approaches are utilized to enforce that dependencies are kept up-to-date:

# Git Pre-Commit Hook

This will ensure that a validation check will occur on a Developer's local machine when making any Git Commits.

The dep:check should be added as a git commit pre-hook using Husky (opens new window) as follows:

npx husky add .husky/pre-commit "npm run dep:check"

Note: It is possible to circumvent this by using -n parameter when committing using git commit -nm <message>. A CI (Continuous Integration) test-dependencies Validation Check (see next section) is thus required to ensure enforcement.

# Automated CI Validations

This will ensure that a validation check occur during reviews and releases, and also ensure that Git Pre-Commit Hook are not circumvented.

CI Configs (i.e. .circleci/config.yml) must contain a test-dependencies Validation Check CI Job (i.e. npm run dep:check) for all Pull-Request, merges to Main branch, and Tagged Releases.

# Dependency Auditing

# NodeJS

NodeJS projects should install audit-ci (opens new window) using the following command:

npm install -D audit-ci

And add the following scripts to package.json:

"scripts": {
    "audit:check": "npx audit-ci --config ./audit-ci.jsonc"
}

Run the following script to check for any dependencies that need upgrading:

npm run audit:check

If required, one can execute npm audit (opens new window) to apply any known available fixes:

npm audit fix --package-lock-only

NOTES

  1. Ensure to commit any fixes applied by the above command to the package-lock.json.
  2. Ensure that all tests pass after applying any fixes as they may result in a dependency version change which could introduce breaking changes.

If there is no fix, then audit-ci.jsonc file should added to the project root with said vulnerability advisories ID added to the allowlist with an appropriate comment as follows:

{
  "$schema": "https://github.com/IBM/audit-ci/raw/main/docs/schema.json",
  // audit-ci supports reading JSON, JSONC, and JSON5 config files.
  // Only use one of ["low": true, "moderate": true, "high": true, "critical": true]
  "moderate": true,
  "allowlist": [ // NOTE: Please add as much information as possible to any items added to the allowList
    // Currently no fixes available for the following advisory ID
    "<VULNERABILITY_ADVISORY_ID>"
  ]
}
# Git Pre-Commit Hook

This will ensure that a vulnerability checks will occur on a Developer's local machine when making any Git Commits.

The audit:check should be added as a git commit pre-hook using Husky (opens new window) as follows:

npx husky add .husky/pre-commit "npm run audit:check"

Note: It is possible to circumvent this by using -n parameter when committing using git commit -nm <message>. A CI (Continuous Integration) vulnerability-check vulnerability Check (see next section) is thus required to ensure enforcement.

# Automated CI Validations

This will ensure that a auditing checks occur during reviews and releases, and also ensure that Git Pre-Commit Hook are not circumvented.

CI Configs (i.e. .circleci/config.yml) must contain a vulnerability-check vulnerability Check CI Job (i.e. npm run dep:check) for all Pull-Request, merges to Main branch, and Tagged Releases.

# Design + Implementation Guidelines

These guidelines are meant as recommendations for writing code in the Mojaloop community (or code that will be adopted into the community). If you are writing code that you wish to donate code to the community, we ask that you follow these guidelines as much as possible to aid with the consistency and maintainability of the codebase. Donations that adhere to these guidelines will be adopted more easily and swiftly.

For more information, refer to the FAQ below.

# Tools + Frameworks

In the Mojaloop OSS Community, we are prefer the following tools and frameworks:

By using these tools and frameworks, we maintain a high level of consistency and maintainability across the codebase, which keeps our developers productive and happy. While we don't mandate that donated codebases use these same tools and frameworks, we would like to stress that adoptions that use different tools could create an undue maintenance burden on the Community.

# Adopting Open Source Contributions into Mojaloop

This section provides guidelines regarding the adoption of a contribution to the Mojaloop Open Source repositories. Adoption is the process where we as the community work with a contributor to bring a contribution into alignment with our standards and guidelines to be a part of the Mojaloop OSS Codebase.

Note: Code Contributions are evaluated on a case-by-case basis. Contributions that don't align to these guidelines will need to go through the incubation phase as described below. Other misalignments to these standards (for example, framework choices) may be added to a roadmap for further improvement and OSS Standardization in the future.

# Step 0: Prerequisites

Before a contribution is to be considered for adoption, it:

  1. Should be in-line with the Level One Project Principles (opens new window).
  2. Should adhere to the above Style and Design + Implementation Guides.
  3. Should contain documentation to get started: the more, the better.
  4. Contain tests with a high level of coverage. At a minimum, a contribution should contain unit tests, but a test suite with unit, integration and functional tests is preferred. Refer to the contributors guide for more information.

# Step 1: Incubation

  1. Create a private repo within the Mojaloop GitHub organization for the adopted code.
  2. Have a sub-team of the DA take a look to make sure its portable (to OSS) - aligns with L1P principles, etc, and ensure design is in line with standards.
  3. Check Licensing of the contribution and any new dependencies it requires, and add the standard Mojaloop License with attribution to donor/contributors.
  4. Assess the current state of the codebase, including documentation, tests, code quality, and address any shortfalls.
  5. Assess Performance impact.
  6. Create action items (stories) to update naming, remove/sanitize any items that are not generic
  7. Inspect and discuss any framework and tooling choices.
  • If a decision is made to make any changes, add them to the roadmap.

# Step 2: Public Adoption

  1. Make the project public on Mojaloop GitHub.
  2. Announce on the slack #announcements (opens new window) channel.
  3. Enable CI/CD Pipelines and publish any relevant artifacts, such as Docker Images or npm modules.
  4. Review and recommend a module or course for the Mojaloop Training Program if needed and relevant for this contribution.

# Versioning

Review the information on versioning for Mojaloop.

# Creating new Features

Process for creating new features and branches in Mojaloop.

# Pull Request Process

It's a good idea to ask about major changes on Slack (opens new window). Submit pull requests which include both the change and the reason for the change. Feel free to use GitHub's "Draft Pull Request" feature to open up your changes for comments and review from the community.

Pull requests will be denied if they violate the Level One Principles (opens new window).

# Code of conduct

We use the Mojaloop Foundation Code of Conduct (opens new window)

# Licensing

See License (opens new window) policy.

# FAQs

1. What if I want to contribute code, but it doesn't align with the code style and framework/tool recommendations in this guide?

Contributions are accepted on a case by case basis. If your contribution is not yet ready to be fully adopted, we can go through the incubation phase described above, where the code is refactored with our help and brought into alignment with the code and documentation requirements.

2. These standards are outdated, and a newer, cooler tool (or framework, method or language) has come along that will solve problem x for us. How can I update the standards?

Writing high quality, functional code is a moving target, and we always want to be on the lookout for new tools that will improve the Mojaloop OSS codebase. So please talk to us in the design authority slack channel (#design-authority) if you have a recommendation.